Euro and Bharat stage! What are emission standards?

Euro and BS are emission standards. These are the ones that govern the automobile industry.We have seen BS III or BS IV behind cars made in India. Also, we have heard of the government implementing EURO III emission standard directly from EURO I emission standard . And we also know the recent upgrades to bikes in India sporting BS IV complaint engines and all. But do you even know what it is? Well you have read about it in online portals but it seems too technical right? Well, I am going to make it very simple to understand.

Understanding Emission Standards

To understand the standard, first let’s know about what is the standard about. The standards are for the control of production of exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are the non-usable gaseous waste products produced during the combustion process. “Exhaust gas” is the standard term used to describe the waste gas from internal combustion engines. These causes the increase in greenhouse effect, global warming and all the environmental problems we are seeing today.

Standards are all around us, even if we are not always aware of them. Understanding EURO standard will make all sense. Euro standards follows from Euro 1 that was introduced in 1992/93, to Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 in 1996/7, 2000/1, 2005/6, 2009/11 and 2014/15 respectively.

The latest standard, ‘Euro 6’, applies to new type approvals from September 2014. All new cars from September 2015 and reduces some pollutants by 96% compared to the 1992 limits.

Bharat Stage or Bharat stage is Indian version of European emission standard.

Bharat Stage II Euro 2 1 April 2005
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 1 April 2010
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 1 April 2016
Bharat Stage VI Euro 6 April 2020 (proposed)


To make the issue of pollution a bit less, the Indian government has stated to skip the Euro 5 standard and jump to Euro 6. The higher the digit, lesser the pollutant in the exhaust.


Impact of emission standard on Nepal

In case of Nepal, the government of Nepal had planned to jump Euro 3 from Euro 1, skipping the Euro 2 emission standard. It had been following Euro 1 standard since 13 years before introducing Euro 3. But it’s only a matter of namesake as most of the vehicle is imported from India which has its Bharat Stage. So, automatically, the vehicles would be of BS IV as of April 2016.

Vehicles would emit less of harmful gases and would help for cleaner environment. This would also improve the efficiency of vehicle. But in doing so, the cost of vehicle increases due to increase in R&D for the new technology to improve emission standard. But it is negligible in contrast to previous generation of standards and products that produce more harmful toxic exhaust gases which is bad for both environment and human body.




For the fact heads, here are the facts.


Euro 1 emission standards

The introduction of the Euro 1 standard in 1992 required the switch to unleaded petrol and the universal fitting of catalytic converters to petrol cars to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions.



Euro 2 emission standards

The Euro 2 standard further reduced the limit for carbon monoxide emissions and also reduced the combined limit for unburned hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen for both petrol and diesel vehicles. Euro 2 introduced different emissions limits for petrol and diesel.


Euro 3 emission standards

Euro 3 modified the test procedure to eliminate the engine warm-up period and further reduced permitted carbon monoxide and diesel particulate limits. Euro 3 also added a separate NOx limit for diesel engines and introduced separate HC and NOx limits for petrol engines.


Euro 4 emission standards

Euro 4 (January 2005) and the later Euro 5 (September 2009) concentrated on cleaning up emissions from diesel cars, especially reducing particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Some Euro 4 diesel cars were fitted with particulate filters.


Euro 5 emission standards

Euro 5 further tightened the limits on particulate emissions from diesel engines and all diesel cars needed particulate filters to meet the new requirements. There was some tightening of NOx limits too (28% reduction compared to Euro 4) as well as, for the first time, a particulates limit for petrol engines – applicable to direct injection engines only.



Euro 6 emission standards

The Euro 6 standard imposes a further, significant reduction in NOx emissions from diesel engines (a 67% reduction compared to Euro 5) and establishes similar standards for petrol and diesel.

Euro Emission Standards in depth available here


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